Impact of Xpert MTB/RIF and decentralized care on linkage to care and drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Johannesburg, South Africa

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We retrospectively matched adult patients diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed RR-TB in Johannesburg
from 07/2011–06/2012 (early cohort) and 07/2013–06/2014 (late cohort) with records of patients initiating DR-TB
treatment at one of the city’s four public sector treatment sites. We determine the proportion of persons diagnosed
with RR-TB who initiated DR-TB treatment and report time to treatment initiation (TTI) before and after the
implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF roll-out in Johannesburg, South Africa. We conducted a sub-analysis among those
who initiated DR-TB treatment at the decentralized outpatient DR-TB centers to determine if delays in treatment
initiation have a subsequent impact on treatment outcomes.

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