All Policy Briefs

The health service costs of offering female condoms in South Africa’s National Female Condom Program 2015/16

The female condom (FC) was identified by the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition in 2011 as one of several under-used reproductive health technologies with the potential to expand choice in reproductive health and family planning programs, responding to the needs of diverse clients (1). The FC is also key to increasing HIV protection options for women and men. It is the only female-initiated HIV prevention barrier method. Although FC distribution rates lag far behind those of male condoms 

Cervical cancer and pap smear screening in HIV-positive women: Awareness, perceived risk, and practices

The Validation of Implementation of Cervical Cancer Screening Applications in HIV-Seropositive Women Study (VICAR 1) was conducted in 2009-2011 to compare three methods for detecting cervical cancer: standard Pap smear, visual inspection with acetic acid, and HPV detection. VICAR 1’s main goal was to estimate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for each method. VICAR 1 participants, however, also answered an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire containing coded 

Delivery of antiretroviral therapy by nurses in South Africa: An evaluation of NIMART by facility type

South Africa now offers two major public sector approaches to NIMART: centralized, hospital-based HIV outpatient clinic and decentralized, full service, primary health clinics (PHCs). While both approaches typically use NIMART, hospitalbased clinics may use both nurses and doctors to manage ART patients whereas PHCs rely primarily on nurses. We evaluated the outcomes and costs of these two approaches to NIMART for HIV treatment 

Towards 90-90-90 How close is South Africa to reaching the UNAIDS HIV treatment targets?

UNAIDS has set a worldwide goal for the year 2020: for 90% of people with HIV to know their status, 90% of those diagnosed with HIV to be on ART, and 90% of those on ART to have viral suppression. Researchers at National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), HE2RO and Boston University (BU) have been working to set up systems to monitor and evaluate the evolving HIV response in South 

Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy at a Patient’s First Clinic Visit: The RapIT Study

The RapIT study was conducted from 2013 to 2015  at two clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa. It was a randomized controlled trial of rapid ART initiation that allowed patients to have treatment eligibility determined, all treatment preparation steps performed, and ARV medications dispensed on the day of their first HIV-related clinic visit. Although it took place at only two clinics, both in urban areas in a single province, the RapIT trial showed that it is possible to start nearly all 

Pharmacy Automation for HIV Treatment: An Evaluation of Costs

In October 2012, an automated dispensing system (ADS) for dispensing antiretroviral medications (ARVs) was installed in the pharmacy in an outpatient HIV care and treatment site located in a public hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. This site dispenses ARVs to almost 300 patients per day. The Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office (HE2RO) evaluated the introduction of the ADS in this facility. In this policy brief, we report the estimated cost per script dispensed under manual 

SA HIV TB Investment Case Summary Report

On Mar 22, 2016 the reports for Phase 1 of the South African HIV and TB Investment Case were launched by the Deputy President during the World TB Day celebrations. HE2RO staff were heavily involved in all aspects of the development of the Investment Case, from devising the analytical framework to reviewing evidence for interventions and enablers to developing the novel optimisation method driving the model analysis to writing the 

SA HIV TB Investment Case Full Report

On Mar 22, 2016 the reports for Phase 1 of the South African HIV and TB Investment Case were launched by the Deputy President during the World TB Day celebrations. HE2RO staff were heavily involved in all aspects of the development of the Investment Case, from devising the analytical framework to reviewing evidence for interventions and enablers to developing the novel optimisation method driving the model analysis to writing the