All Journal Articles

Polymorphisms of innate immunity genes influence disease progression in HIV-1-infected children

Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and defensins (DEFs) play a crucial role in the host's innate immunity and may influence HIV-1 disease progression. We investigated the impact of TLR9 +1174G > A, 1635A > G and DEFβ1 -44C > G, -52G > A single nucleotide polymorphisms on the clinical outcome of 95 HIV-1-infected children. The TLR9 1635AG genotype and TLR9 haplotype were associated with rapid disease progression, whereas the DEFβ1 -44CG genotype and DEFβ1 

Effectiveness and safety of 30mg versus 40mg stavudine regimens: a cohort study among HIV-infected adults initiating HAART in South Africa

Abstract: Background: As stavudine remains an important and widely prescribed drug in resource-limited settings, the effect of a reduced dose of stavudine (from 40 mg to 30 mg) on outcomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains an important public health question. Methods: We analyzed prospectively collected data from the Themba Lethu Clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. We assessed the relationship between stavudine dose and six- and/or 12-month outcomes of stavudine 

Increased risk of mortality and loss to follow-up among HIVpositive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis and malnutrition before antiretroviral therapy initiation: a retrospective analysis from a large urban cohort in Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract: Objective: We investigated the effect of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OC) and body mass index (BMI) before antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on treatment outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients. Study Design: Treatment outcomes included failure to increase CD4 count by 50 or 100 cells/L or failure to suppress viral load (400 copies/mL) at 6 or 12 months in addition to loss to follow-up (LTFU) and mortality by 12 months. Risk and hazard ratios (HRs) were 

Poorer ART outcomes with increasing age at a large public sector HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract: Background: As the current HIV-positive population ages, the absolute number of patients >50 years on treatment is increasing. Methods: We analyze the differences in treatment outcomes by age category (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ≥ 60) among 9139 HIV-positive adults initiating ART in South Africa. Results: The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality increased with increasing age, with the strongest association in the first 12 months of follow-up among patients 

Low rates of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance in a well monitored cohort in South Africa on antiretroviral therapy

Abstract: Background: Emergence of complex HIV-1 drug resistance mutations has been linked to the duration of time on a failing antiretroviral (ARV) drug regimen. This study reports on resistance profiles in a closely monitored subtype C infected cohort. Methods: A total of 812 participants were enrolled into the CIPRA-SA ‘safeguard the household’ study, viral loads (VLs) were performed 12 weekly for 96 weeks. Virological failure was defined as either <1.5 log drop in VL at week 12 or 2 

How to calculate the annual costs of NGO-implemented programmes to support orphans and vulnerable children: a six-step approach

Abstract Background: Information on the costs of implementing programmes designed to provide support of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere is increasingly being requested by donors for programme evaluation purposes. To date, little information exists to document the costs and structure of costs of OVC programmes as actually implemented "on the ground" by local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This analysis provides a practical, six-step approach 

Outcomes of stable HIV-positive patients down-referred from a doctor-managed antiretroviral therapy clinic to a nurse-managed primary health clinic for monitoring and treatment

Abstract Objective: Compare clinical, immunologic and virologic outcomes amongst stable HIV-positive patients down-referred (DR) to nurse-managed primary health care clinic (PHC) for treatment maintenance to those who remained at the doctor-managed treatment-initiation site (TI). Design: We conducted a matched cohort analysis amongst stable HIV patients at the Themba Lethu Clinic, in Johannesburg, South Africa. Eligible patients met the criteria for down-referral (undetectable viral load 

Prevalence and predictors of Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus seropositive: a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstract Background: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common AIDS-defining tumour in HIV-infected individuals in Africa. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) infection precedes development of KS. KSHV co-infection may be associated with worse outcomes in HIV disease and elevated KSHV viral load may be an early marker for advanced HIV disease among untreated patients. We examined the prevalence of KSHV among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and compared immunological, demographic and 

A longitudinal study of stavudine-associated toxicities in a large cohort of South African HIV infected subjects

Abstract  Background: There has been major improvement in the survival of HIV-1 infected individuals since the South African Government introduced highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in the public sector in 2004. This has brought new challenges which include the effects of stavudine-related toxicities. Methods: Prospective analysis of a cohort of 9040 HIV-infected adults who were initiated on HAART at the Themba Lethu Clinic (TLC) in Johannesburg between April 1, 2004 to December 

Relationship between renal dysfunction, nephrotoxicity and death among HIV adults on tenofovir

Abstract: Objective: In April 2010 the South African government added Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to its first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV patients. We analyzed the relationship between renal dysfunction at tenofovir initiation, nephrotoxicity and mortality. Design: Retrospective cohort analysis of HIV-infected adults who received tenofovir and had a creatinine clearance done at initiation at the Themba Lethu Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa between April 2004-September 2009. 

Pregnancy and Virologic Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa

Abstract Background: Although women of reproductive age are the largest group of HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the impact of pregnancy on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in that setting. We examined the effect of incident pregnancy after HAART initiation on virologic response to HAART. Methods and Findings: We evaluated a prospective clinical cohort of adult women who initiated HAART in Johannesburg, South Africa between 1 April 

Retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Abstract Background: Improving the outcomes of HIV/AIDS treatment programs in resource-limited settings requires successful linkage of patients testing positive for HIV to pre–antiretroviral therapy (ART) care and retention in pre-ART care until ART initiation. We conducted a systematic review of pre-ART retention in care in Africa. Methods and Findings: We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, conference abstracts, and reference lists for reports on the proportion of adult patients