All Journal Articles

Community health worker models in South Africa: a qualitative study on policy implementation of the 2018/19 revised framework

Abstract South Africa has a long history of community health workers (CHWs). It has been a journey that has required balancing constrained resources and competing priorities. CHWs form a bridge between communities and healthcare service provision within health facilities and act as the cornerstone of South Africa’s Ward-Based Primary Healthcare Outreach Teams. This study aimed to document the CHW policy implementation landscape across six provinces in South Africa and explore the reasons 

Retention in care and viral suppression in differentiated service delivery models for HIV treatment delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: a rapid systematic review

Abstract Introduction: Differentiated service delivery (DSD) models for antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV are being scaled up in the expectation that they will better meet the needs of patients, improve the quality and efficiency of treatment delivery and reduce costs while maintaining at least equivalent clinical outcomes. We reviewed the recent literature on DSD models to describe what is known about clinical outcomes. Methods: We conducted a rapid systematic review of peer-reviewed 

Cost-effectiveness of adoption strategies for point of care HIV viral load monitoring in South Africa

Viral load (VL) testing is recommended for monitoring people on ART. The National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) in South Africa conducts >5million laboratory-based VL tests but faces challenges with specimen integrity and results delivery. Point-of-care (POC) VL monitoring may improve VL suppression (VLS). We assessed the cost-effectiveness of different strategies for POC testing in South Africa. Methods: We developed a cost-outcome model utilizing NHLS data, including facility-level 

The South African National HIV Pregnancy Cohort: evaluating continuity of care among women living with HIV

South Africa is home to more people living with HIV than any other country, including nearly one in three pregnant women attending antenatal care. Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased substantially since the start of the national ART program in 2004, with > 95% ART coverage during pregnancy and delivery, and vertical transmission of HIV greatly reduced. However, women who initiate ART during pregnancy are at heightened risk of dropping out of care, particularly after 

The South African National HIV Pregnancy Cohort: evaluating continuity of care among women living with HIV

South Africa is home to more people living with HIV than any other country, including nearly one in three pregnant women attending antenatal care. Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased substantially since the start of the national ART program in 2004, with > 95% ART coverage during pregnancy and delivery, and vertical transmission of HIV greatly reduced. However, women who initiate ART during pregnancy are at heightened risk of dropping out of care, particularly after 

Using intervention mapping in motivational interviewing training to improve ART uptake in Gauteng, South Africa

In South Africa, lay HIV counsellors are at the forefront of many HIV-related behavioural interventions. However, they have limited formal counselling training and little ongoing in-service support, leading to considerable variability in approaches to counselling. We describe the use of Intervention Mapping to develop a motivational interviewing counselling training and support program, titled “Thusa-Thuso - helping you help”, for lay HIV counsellors practising in primary health care 

Treatment outcomes and costs of a simplified antiviral treatment strategy for hepatitis C among monoinfected and HIV and/or hepatitis B virus-co-infected patients in Myanmar

Access to hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing and treatment is limited in Myanmar. Weassessed an integrated HIV and viral hepatitis testing and HCV treatment strategy. Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) ± weight-based ribavirin for 12 weeks was provided at three treatment sites in Myanmar and sustained virologic response (SVR) assessed at 12 weeks after treatment. Participants co-infected with HBV were treated concurrently with tenofovir. Cost estimates in 2018 USD were made at Yangon and Mandalay 

Post-tuberculosis lung health: perspectives from the First International Symposium

ALTHOUGH CURABLE, TB frequently leaves the individual with chronic physical and psycho-social impairment, but these consequences have been largely neglected. The 1st International Post-Tuberculosis Symposium (Stellenbosch, South Africa) was held to discuss priorities and gaps in addressing this issue. A barrier to progress has been the varied terminology and nomenclature, so the Delphi process was used to achieve consensus on definitions. Lack of sufficient evidence hampered definitive 

Patient Perspectives of Quality of the Same‑Day Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Process in Gauteng Province, South Africa: Qualitative Dominant Mixed‑Methods Analysis of the SLATE II Trial

HIV patients in South Africa continue to report operational barriers to starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the Simplified Algorithm for Treatment Eligibility (SLATE) II trial, same-day initiation (SDI) of ART increased the number of patients commencing ART and achieving HIV viral suppression by using a screening tool to distinguish between patients eligible for SDI and those requiring additional care before starting treatment. We conducted a mixed-methods evaluation to explore trial 

Economic evaluation of facility-based HIV self-testing among adult outpatients in Malawi

HIV self-testing (HIVST) in outpatient departments (OPD) is a promising strategy for HIV testing in Malawi, given high OPD patient volumes and substantial wait times. To evaluate the relative cost and expected impact of facility-based HIVST (FB-HIVST) at OPDs in Malawi for increasing HIV status awareness, we conducted an economic evaluation of an HIVSTcluster-randomized controlled 

Prevalence of TB symptoms, diagnosis and treatment among people living with HIV (PLHIV) not on ART presenting at outpatient clinics in South Africa and Kenya: baseline results from a clinical trial

Objective We used screening data and routine clinic records for intervention arm patients in the Simplified Algorithm for Treatment Eligibility (SLATE) trials to describe the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) symptoms, diagnosis and treatment among people living with HIV (PLHIV), not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and presenting at outpatient clinics in South Africa and Kenya. We compared the performance of the WHO four-symptom TB screening tool with a baseline Xpert test. Setting Outpatient HIV