All Journal Articles

Predicted effects of the introduction of long-acting injectable cabotegravir pre-exposure prophylaxis in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study

Summary Background: Long-acting injectable cabotegravir pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended by WHO as an additional option for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa, but there is concern that its introduction could lead to an increase in integrase-inhibitor resistance undermining treatment programmes that rely on dolutegravir. We aimed to project the health benefits and risks of cabotegravir-PrEP introduction in settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: With HIV Synthesis, an 

The costs of interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease in South Africa – a systematic literature review

Background In the context of a move to universal health coverage, three separate systematic reviews were conducted to summarise available evidence on the direct costs of interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in South Africa. Methods PubMed® and Web of Science was searched for literature published between 01 and 1995 and 27 October 2022. Additionally, reference and citations lists of retrieved articles and experts were consulted. We also 

The household economic burden of drug-susceptible TB diagnosis and treatment in The Gambia

OBJECTIVE: To determine the costs and catastrophic costs incurred by drug-susceptible (DS) pulmonary TB patients in The Gambia. METHODS: This observational study collected cost and socio-economic data using a micro-costing approach from the household perspective from 244 adult DS-TB patients with pulmonary TB receiving treatment through the national treatment programme in The Gambia. We used data collected between 2017 and 2020 using an adapted version of the WHO generic patient cost 

Quasi-experimental evaluation of a financial incentive for first-dose COVID-19 vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years in South Africa

Introduction: COVID-19 vaccination coverage in South Africa (RSA) remains low despite increased access to vaccines. On 1 November 2021, RSA introduced the Vooma Voucher programme which provided a small guaranteed financial incentive, a Vooma Voucher redeemable at grocery stores, for COVID-19 vaccination among older adults, a population most vulnerable to serious illness, hospitalisation and death. However, the association of financial incentives with vaccination coverage remains 

Progress towards unique patient identification and case-based surveillance within the Southern African development community

Population mobility makes patient-tracking and care linkage in the South African Development Community (SADC) challenging. Case-based surveillance (CBS) through individual-level clinical data linked with a unique patient-identifier (UPI) is recommended. We conducted a mixedmethods landscape analysis of UPI and CBS implementation within selected SADC countries, this included: (1) SADC UPI implementation literature review; (2) assessment of UPI and CBS implementation for high HIV-prevalence SADC 

Relative cost-effectiveness of long-acting injectable cabotegravir versus oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in South Africa based on the HPTN 083 and HPTN 084 trials: a modelled economic evaluation and threshold analysis

Long-acting injectable cabotegravir, a drug taken every 2 months, has been shown to be more effective at preventing HIV infection than daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine, but its cost-effectiveness in a high-prevalence setting is not known. We aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of long-acting injectable cabotegravir compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine in South Africa, using methods standard to government planning, and to 

Similar costs and outcomes for differentiated service delivery models for HIV treatment in Uganda

This cost-outcome study estimated, from the perspective of the service provider, the total annual cost per client on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and total annual cost per client virally suppressed (defined as < 1000 copies/ml at the time of the study) in Uganda in five ART differentiated service delivery models (DSDMs). These included both facility- and community-based models and the standard of care (SOC), known as the facility-based individual management (FBIM) model. The Ministry of 

The early-stage comprehensive costs of routine PrEP implementation and scale-up in Zambia

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention option, but cost-effectiveness is sensitive to implementation and program costs. Studies indicate that, in addition to direct delivery cost, PrEP provision requires substantial demand creation and client support to encourage PrEP initiation and persistence. We estimated the cost of providing PrEP in Zambia through different PrEP delivery models. Taking a guidelines-based approach for visits, labs and drugs, we estimated the annual 

Assessment of facility-based tuberculosis data quality in an integrated HIV/TB database in three South African districts

Background Assessment of data quality is essential to successful monitoring & evaluation of tuberculosis (TB) services. South Africa uses the Three Interlinked Electronic Register (TIER.Net) to monitor TB diagnoses and treatment outcomes. We assessed the quality of routine programmatic data as captured in TIER.Net. Methods We reviewed 277 records from routine data collected for adults who had started TB treatment for drug-sensitive (DS-) TB between 10/2018-12/2019 from 15 

Minimal Cross-resistance to Tenofovir in Children and Adolescents Failing ART Makes Them Eligible for Tenofovir-Lamivudine-Dolutegravir Treatment

Background: Fixed-dose combination of dolutegravir (DTG) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC) likely improves adherence and has a favorable resistance profile. We evaluated predicted efficacy of TLD (TDF-3TC-DTG) in children and adolescents failing abacavir (ABC), zidovudine (AZT), or TDF containing regimens. Methods: Drug resistance mutations were analyzed in a retrospective dataset of individuals <19 years of age, failing ABC (n = 293) AZT (n = 288) or TDF (n 

Adolescent retention in HIV care within differentiated service-delivery models in sub-Saharan Africa

Adolescents and young people living with HIV are at risk of disengaging from HIV care at all stages of the care cascade. Differentiated models of care offer simplified HIV-service delivery options in the hope of improving treatment outcomes, including retention on antiretroviral therapy. However, it remains unclear how successful and widespread these models are for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, where the burden of HIV is the greatest. Very few differentiated models of care specifically 

Costs of Diagnosing Breast-Related Conditions at a Large, Public Hospital in a Middle-Income Country Without Population-Level Screening

Literature regarding the costs and cost-effectiveness of diagnosing breast disease globally, including cancer, has focused on mammographic screening in high-income settings. South Africa, a middle-income country, is currently crafting its first national breast cancer policy, and information on costs and best practices for national imaging services in low- and middle-income settings is required. We undertook this work to estimate the average cost per procedure and per patient for diagnosis of