All Journal Articles

Models of service delivery for optimizing a patient’s first six months on antiretroviral therapy for HIV: an applied research agenda

Differentiated models of service delivery (DSD models) for HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa were conceived as a way to manage rapidly expanding populations of experienced patients who are clinically “stable” on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Entry requirements for most models include at least six months on treatment and a suppressed viral load. These models thus systematically exclude newly-initiated patients, who instead experience the conventional model of care, which requires 

A clinical algorithm for same-day HIV treatment initiation in settings with high TB symptom prevalence in South Africa: The SLATE II individually randomized clinical trial

Many countries encourage same-day initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but evidence on eligibility for same-day initiation, how best to implement it, and its impact on outcomes remains scarce. Building on the Simplified Algorithm for Treatment Eligibility (SLATE) I trial, in which nearly half of participants were ineligible for same-day initiation mainly because of TB symptoms, the study evaluated the revised SLATE II algorithm, which allowed same-day initiation for patients with mild 

Steep Declines in Pediatric AIDS Mortality in South Africa, Despite Poor Progress Toward Pediatric Diagnosis and Treatment Targets

Few attempts have been made to monitor progress toward HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage targets in children, and the impact that ART and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs have had on pediatric HIV incidence and mortality. Methods: A multiparameter evidence synthesis approach was adopted to integrate South African pediatric HIV data sources. A previously developed model of HIV in South Africa was calibrated to household survey HIV prevalence 

A Clinical Prediction Score Including Trial of Antibiotics and C-Reactive Protein to Improve the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Ambulatory People With HIV

Background. The use of a “trial of antibiotics” as empiric therapy for bacterial pneumonia as a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis in people with HIV (PWH) was removed from World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations in 2007, based on expert opinion. Current guidelines recommend antibiotics only after 2 Xpert MTB/RIF tests (if available), chest x-ray, and clinical assessment have suggested that tuberculosis is unlikely. Despite this, a “trial of antibiotics” remains common in 

PS-SiZer map to investigate significant features of body-weight profile changes in HIV infected patients in the IeDEA Collaboration

We extend the method of Significant Zero Crossings of Derivatives (SiZer) to address within-subject correlations of repeatedly collected longitudinal biomarker data and the computational aspects of the methodology when analyzing massive biomarker databases. SiZer is a powerful visualization tool for exploring structures in curves by mapping areas where the first derivative is increasing, decreasing or does not change (plateau) thus exploring changes and normalization of biomarkers in the 

Will differentiated care for stable HIV patients reduce healthcare systems costs?

Introduction: South Africa’s National Department of Health launched the National Adherence Guidelines for Chronic Diseases in 2015. These guidelines include adherence clubs (AC) and decentralized medication delivery (DMD) as two differentiated models of care for stable HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. While the adherence guidelines do not suggest that provider costs (costs to the healthcare system for medications, laboratory tests and visits to clinics or alternative locations) for 

“Patients are not the same, so we cannot treat them the same” – A qualitative content analysis of provider, patient and implementer perspectives on differentiated service delivery models for HIV treatment in South Africa

Abstract Introduction: In 2014, the South African government adopted a differentiated service delivery (DSD) model in its “National Adherence Guidelines for Chronic Diseases (HIV, TB and NCDs)” (AGL) to strengthen the HIV care cascade. We describe the barriers and facilitators of the AGL implementation as experienced by various stakeholders in eight intervention and control sites across four districts. Methods: Embedded within a cluster-randomized evaluation of the AGL, we conducted 48 

Educational antimicrobial stewardship programs in medical schools: a scoping review protocol

Objective: The objective of this scoping review is to identify the available evidence on antimicrobial stewardship programs for teaching medical students about rational antimicrobial use, including the content taught and the method of instruction used. Introduction: Antibiotics are life-saving drugs and their discovery is one of the most important advances of the 20th century. They have transformed modern medicine by playing a critical role in the management of infectious diseases. However,